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Mapping Water Provisioning Services to Support the Ecosystem–Water–Food–Energy Nexus in the Danube River Basin


Ecosystem Services


Armağan Karabulut

Benis N. Ego

Denis Lanzanova

Bruna Grizzetti

Giovanni Bidoglio

Liliana Pagliero

Fayçal Bouraoui

Alberto Aloe

Arnaud Reynaud

Joachim Maes

Ine Vandecasteele

Sarah Mubareka


1 February 2016

The authors of this study aim to map and assess water provisioning services and associated benefits to support the ecosystem–water–food–energy nexus by taking into account environmental flow requirements for riverine ecosystems using the hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The authors developed a framework that includes indicators of renewable water (capacity of ecosystem to provide water) and water use (service flow), and they applied it in the Danube river basin over the period 1995–2004.