Sustainability Criteria and Measurement Strategies Developed by the European Commission
The European Commission established detailed sustainability criteria for biofuels, including initial requirements for a reduction of 35% in greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fuels, a percentage which increases over time (EC 2016). They provide a protocol that establishes how to calculate greenhouse gas emissions and includes complete life cycle analyses (Alberici and Hamelinck 2010; EC 2016). Additional protocols specify allowable data sources, methods for on-site assessment, and definitions of concepts such as biodiversity and biodiverse areas (Dehue et al. 2011).