Sustainable Agricultural Water Management in Pinios River Basin Using Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling
The Pinios river basin is a major agricultural area in Greece, which faces environmental issues with water scarcity and nutrient pollution. Recent Earth Observation satellite data and ground truth information were combined to produce an updated land use map, focusing on irrigated crop areas. A process-based hydrological model (SWAT) was set up using the produced land use map. The model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflows and nutrient concentrations at selected gauging stations. Four irrigation and nutrient management practices related to resource efficiency (i.e. deficit irrigation, reduced fertilization, combination of deficit irrigation and fertilization, precision agriculture) were modelled and simulated. The sustainability of the management practices was assessed using indicators to quantify their impacts on the water-energy-land-food nexus of the river basin.