Livestock—domesticated animals used for producing commodities such as fiber, food (e.g., beef, pork, and poultry) and labor—account for a significant portion of greenhouse gas emissions. The livestock supply chain of animal husbandry practices has major effects on soil (e.g., overgrazing and deforestation for cattle ranching), water (intensity and pollution from animal waste) and energy consumption (e.g., dairy production and animal housing). As developing countries increase in affluence and urbanization, dietary preferences for meat products rise. Because most of the population increase will occur in developing countries, and animal products require between 6 per cent and 20 per cent more water than plant products, competition for water and land resources are expected to grow.
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Science of The Total Environment
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