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Finance

The clean energy policy resources—reports, data, and tools—that are provided here encompass deployment programs, financial incentives and regulations.

Incentive/Instrument

Governments, utilities, development banks, green banks and the private sector have several tools at their disposal that can help address barriers to clean energy investments. Incentives are policies that reduce the capital expenditures for an investment and in some cases can also help reduce the cost of financing. Instruments are financial structures and agreements that provide financial products or contractual agreements that provide cash flows.

Investor

Investors include those who can provide cash, can purchase stocks or bonds, or can loan to clean energy projects. Investors have their own appetite for risk and preference for types of projects, investment lengths and return rates. Accordingly, investors may focus on specific technologies and applications, markets, and stages of the business development cycle.

Investment

Each type of capital maps to different investor classes and may come with specific stipulations. For example, equity investments imply ownership. Clean energy companies, project developers and direct investors will likely use a portfolio of different types of content, depending on the stage of development the project or company is in and considering the overall cost of capital.

Barriers

Despite being widely deployed in a variety of markets and being considered as proven and commercialized technologies, clean energy projects and companies may face challenges accessing investment and finance owing to systemic risks and a lack of experience through the project development and financing process. Public and private sector incentives and instruments and other efforts, such as capacity building programs and the policy and regulatory environment are potential solutions.

Market Stage

The level of market activity and size of the ecosystem of local technologies supplier, developers, financiers and investors can impact risks and thus the types of incentives and instruments needed to support project development. Nascent markets are likely to require stronger policy signals and programs that address higher risks and resulting cost of capital, whereas mature markets with significant project pipelines are less reliant on public sector programs.

Economy

Economic development can affect the overall financing and investment ecosystem. There are also often general correlations between stage of economic growth and the number and degree that barriers exist. Policymakers will need to consider the economic profile of their jurisdiction when designing incentives and instruments.

Jurisdiction

Policymakers, utilities and development banks focus on specific geographic areas, including at the regional level, at the country level or at the municipal or county/provincial level. Certain incentives and instruments may make more sense for a given jurisdiction.

See Also

Resources CESC

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Resources countries

Deployment Data

Course on Regulation and Sustainable Energy in Developing Countries

This suite of 10 training courses instructs the user on numerous topics relating to regulations and sustainable energy in developing…

Sources:

Leonardo Energy

Clean Energy Solutions Center

Date:

22 September 2014

Deployment Data

2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

This report provides an overview of wind industry trends in the United States. Topics addressed include installation trends; price, cost,…

Sources:

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Date:

1 June 2011

Deployment Data

2010 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

This report details the major trends in the United States transportation sector in 2010, as well as the underlying trends…

Sources:

United States Department of Energy

Date:

1 February 2011

Deployment Data

2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

This report provides an overview of the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies.…

Sources:

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Date:

1 November 2011

Publication

2010 Clean Energy Investments: Project Summaries

This report looks at the growing energy demands in the Asia and Pacific regions and the complications involved in trying…

Sources:

Asian Development Bank

Date:

1 June 2011

Publication

2010 China-United States Renewable Energy Grid Integration Workshop (Website)

This website provides 16 presentations from a workshop held in Beijing, 7-8 December 2010, as well as a workshop summary.…

Sources:

The China Sustainable Energy Program

Deployment Data

2009 U.S. State Clean Energy Data Book

The data book summarizes the status of state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy (known together as clean energy) developments and…

Sources:

United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Date:

1 October 2010

Publication

10 Questions to Ask About Electricity Tariffs

10 Questions to Ask about Electricity Tariffs attempts to capture some of the critical dimensions of tariff determination, primarily in…

Sources:

Prayas

Energy Group

World Resources Institute

Date:

1 April 2014

Publication

10 Big Ideas for Making Energy Efficiency Bankable in India

This document presents ten “big ideas” to make the energy efficiency sector bankable in India. All of the ideas are…

Sources:

International Institute for Sustainable Development

Date:

19 August 2014

Deployment Data

"Tablero de Comando” Para la Promoción de los Biocombustibles en Ecuador

This publication examines the positives and negatives involved in the development of biofuels in Ecuador. It explores the possibilities of…

Sources:

United Nations

Date:

1 May 2008

Policy Data

A Comparison of Energy Efficiency Programmes for Existing Homes in Eleven Countries

This report presents a high‐level comparison of current public energy efficiency programs for existing homes in Australia, Canada, Denmark, France,…

Sources:

Regulatory Assistance Project

Date:

1 February 2010

Publication

30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy Lessons from 12 Wind Energy Markets

This report aims to provide an insight into the strengths of diverse policy design decisions across important existing markets. It…

Sources:

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

Date:

1 December 2012

Deployment Data

2017 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Update

The research featured in this report highlights current market conditions in the United States and around the world. New state-level…

Sources:

United States Department of Energy

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Date:

1 August 2018

Deployment Data

2014 JRC Ocean Energy Status Report

This report describes the state-of-play of technology in the ocean energy sector, and it monitors the evolution of the technology…

Sources:

Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Date:

1 January 2015

Deployment Data

2011 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

This report details the major trends in the United States light-duty vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the…

Sources:

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

U.S. Department of Energy

Date:

1 February 2012

Deployment Data

2011 Technology Map of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan)

This report is produced yearly by the European Commission in order to provide: 1) a concise and authoritative assessment of…

Sources:

European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy and Transport

Date:

1 January 2011

Publication

A Guidebook on Renewable Energy Project Development and Packaging in the Philippines

This guidebook provides prospective renewable energy project developers in the Philippines with a road map to assist in project development…

Sources:

United Nations

Philippines Department of Energy

Publication

A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development

This guide explores the range of solar energy incentives and policies while providing examples of operational community solar projects, thereby…

Sources:

United States Department of Energy

United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Northwest Sustainable Energy for Economic Development

Keyes and Fox

Stoel Rives

Bonneville Environmental Foundation

Date:

1 November 2010