The Water–Energy Nexus in Middle East and North Africa
This paper performs a country-level quantitative assessment of this nexus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The results show a highly skewed coupling with a relatively weak dependence of energy systems on fresh water, but a strong dependence of water abstraction and production systems on energy. The results suggest that policymakers should explicitly consider energy implications in water intensive food imports and future restructuring of water demand. This paper will help in making more integrated decisions on water and energy infrastructure systems.